This article explores how tombois in West Sumatra both shape their identities from and resist local, national, and transnational narratives of gender and sexuality. By focusing on West Sumatra, I provide an in-depth analysis of the complexities of tomboi identity for individuals from one ethnic group in Indonesia, the Minangkabau. This piece is not a general explication of tombois across Indonesia, although there may be considerable overlap (see Wieringa 1998). Much excellent work on postcolonial states explores the interplay of national and transnational narratives in the production of genders and sexualities. This article provides a cultural location for tombois oriented to Minangkabau culture as well as national and transnational discourses (491).
Blackwood, Evelyn. "Tombois in West Sumatra: Constructing Masculinity and Erotic Desire." Cultural Anthropology 13.4 (1998): 491-521.