Graphic Ethnography: The Trouble with Typologies
From the Series: Graphic Ethnography on the Rise
 Williams encouraged us to avoid singular and closed academic narratives, a point he made before the corresponding anthropological critique of the 1980s; see Williams 1977.
 Our ethnographic interlocutors are often in doubt about their own views. I have found the graphic approach very helpful in capturing their ambivalent stance, or even ideological conflicts, but in a manner that does not single out conflicting views in mutually excluding terms; see Theodossopoulos 2020a, 2020b.
 University of Toronto Press has dedicated a book series to full-length 'ethnoGRAPHIC' monographs. See: Lissa (Hamdy and Nye 2017), The King of Bangkok (Sopranzetti et al. 2019), Light in Dark Times (Waterston 2020), and Gringo Love (Carrier-Moisa 2020). See also: graphic books that divert from the sequential graphic novel format: Things that Art (Jain 2019) and The Inheritance (Povinelli 2021).
 There is great variety of “shorter” graphic outputs. Some of them popularize the content of academic articles and books. One of my favorite examples is a graphic that outlines Imogen Tyler’s critique of Erving Goffman; see Bailey and Tyler 2018. There are also recent graphic interventions that popularize abstract academic concepts in a format that can be read by local populations—such as the indigenous interlocutors, the people that generate the knowledge (or ideas) captured by ethnography; see Theodossopoulos 2019 and Mookherjee and Keya 2019.
 I refer here to a research project during which I emulated the representational style of a political cartoonist who exposed social inequality in the 1950s and 1960s. I drew like him (and recycled his cartoon-characters) to introduce an ethnographic comparison with austerity in the present time; see Theodossopoulos 2022.
Bailey, Charlotte, and Imogen Tyler. 2018. "From Stigma Power to Black Power." Graphic Essay.
Carrier-Moisa, Marie-Eve. 2020. Gringo Love: Stories of Sex Tourism in Brazil. Adapted by William Flynn; illustrated by Débora Santos. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Hamdy, Sherine, and Coleman Nye. 2017. Lissa: A Story about Medical Promise, Friendship, and Revolution. Illustrated by Caroline Brewer and Sarula Bao. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Jain, Lochlann. 2019. Things That Art. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Mookherjee, Nayanika, and Najmunnahar Keya. 2019. Birangona: Towards Ethical Testimonies of Sexual Violence during Conflict. Durham, U.K.: University of Durham.
Povinelli, Elizabeth. 2021. The Inheritance. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Sopranzetti, Claudio, Sara Fabbri, and Chiara Natalucci. 2019. The King of Bangkok. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Theodossopoulos, Dimitrios. 2019. “A Vision for Emberá Tourism.” entanglements: Experiments in Multimodal Ethnography 2, no. 2: 7–26.
Theodossopoulos, Dimitrios. 2020a. "Solidarity Dilemmas in Times of Austerity." Cultural Anthropology 35, no. 1: 134–166.
Theodossopoulos, Dimitrios. 2020b. “Iphigenia’s Sacrifice: Generational Historicity as a Structure of Feeling in Times of Austerity.” The Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute 26, no. 4: 842–863.
Theodossopoulos, Dimitrios. 2022. “Collaborative Experiments in Graphic Ethnography: Emulating Political Cartooning.” Trajectoria Vol. 3.
Waterston, Alisse. 2020. Light in Dark Times: The Human Search for Meaning. Illustrated by Charlotte Cordon. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Williams, Raymond. 1977. Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.